|Introduction; Matter and Change
Read Chapters 1 and 2
1. Know the chemical and physical properties and chemical and physical changes of matter.
2. Given properties, identify each as chemical or physical.
3. Given changes, identify each as chemical or physical.
4. Categorize a sample of matter as heterogeneous or homogeneous.
5. Categorize a substance as a pure substance, mixture, element, or compound.
6. Given a substance and a set of conditions, predict whether the substance will exist as a solid, liquid, or gas.
7. Know the properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
8. Locate metals, non-metals, metalloids, and noble gases on a periodic table.
9. Apply the law of conservation of mass.
10. Describe and apply the steps involved in the scientific method.
11. For the first 18 elements, given the name of the element, write its chemical symbol; and given the chemical symbol of the element, write its name.
12. Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative measurements.
13. Know the definitions for the following terms: chemistry, matter, mass, substance, vapor, filtration, filtrate, residue, evaporation, decanting, distillation, separatory funnel, chromatography, heterogeneous, homogeneous, solution, solute, solvent, mixture, compound, element, Tyndall effect.
Read Chapter 3
1. Given a measurement in standard notation (long form) rewrite it in standard scientific notation or given a measurement in standard scientific measurement rewrite it in standard notation (long form).
2. Identify the number of significant figures in a measurement.
3. Apply the rules for significant figures in calculations to round off numbers correctly.
4. Recognize the SI units of measurement used in Chemistry.
5. Given a common metric prefix, identify the corresponding decimal power or given the decimal power, identify the metric prefix.
6. Calculate the area, volume, or density of a substance from experimental data.
7. Read measurements from meter sticks, graduated cylinders, thermometers, balances and other laboratory measuring equipment to the correct number of significant figures.
8. Know the conversion factors for the metric prefixes denoted by asterisks in your notes.
9. Know 1 mL = 1 cm3.
10. Convert among oC, oF, and K.
11. Calculate percent error from experimental data..
12. For the first 36 elements, given the name of the element, write its chemical symbol and given the chemical symbol of the element write its name.
13. Know the following terms: quantitative measurement, qualitative measurement, extensive property, intensive property, precision, accuracy, error, percent error.
1. Construct conversion factors from equivalent measurements.
2. Apply the techniques of dimensional analysis to a variety of conversion problems.
3. Solve problems by breaking the solution into steps.
4. Convert complex units, using dimensional analysis.
5. Using the formula for density, for a substance given any two of the parameters, calculate the third.
|Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table
Read Chapter 4
1. State the observations and conclusions of Dalton's, Thomson's, Millikan's, Goldstein, Rutherford's, and Chadwick's experiments.
2. Distinguish among protons, neutrons, and electrons in terms of relative mass and charge.
3. Describe the structure of an atom, including the location of the protons, neutrons, and electrons.
4. Know how atomic number identifies an element.
5. Use the atomic number and the mass number of an element to find the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons.
6. Know how to write the nuclear notation for an element.
7. Given the relative abundance of the natural isotopes of an element and the atomic mass of each isotope, calculate the average atomic mass of the element.
8. Given properties of some elements on the periodic table, predict the properties for other nearby elements.
9. Identify the position of an element by referring to its group and period.
10. Referring to a periodic table, identify the noble gases, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens; representative, transition, and inner transition elements; metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
11. Use the periodic table to determine the charge on a common ion.
12. Know the definitions of the following terms: atom, atomic number, mass number, atomic mass, isotope, ion, cation, anion, inert.
Read Chapter 6
1. Distinguish between ionic and molecular compounds.
2. Use the periodic table to determine the charge on an ion.
3. Apply the rules for naming and writing formulas for binary ionic compounds.
4. Apply the rules for naming and writing formulas for ternary ionic compounds.
5. Apply the rules for naming and writing formulas for binary molecular compounds.
6. Apply the rules for naming and writing formulas for hydrates.
7. Name and write formulas for common acids and compounds with common names such as water, ammonia and methane.
Read Chapter 7
1. Calculate the formula weight of a substance.
2. Calculate the percent composition of a substance from its chemical formula or experimental data.
3. Derive the empirical formula and the molecular formula of a compound from its chemical formula or experimental data.
4. Calculate the molar mass of any substance.
5. Use the mole to convert between mass measurements and number of representative particles.
6. Determine the representative particle of a substance.
Read Chapter 8
1. Given any chemical reaction, identify the reactants and products.
2. Given any unbalanced reaction, balance it using the strategies or by inspection.
3. Given any reactants, identify the reaction type, and complete the equation predicting the products.
4. Given a word equation, translate it to an equation with formulas and symbols.
5. Given the relative reactivity of the elements, predict the products for single replacement reactions.
Read Chapter 9
1. Given a chemical reaction and the number of moles of one species in the reaction, calculate the number of moles of any other species.
2. Given a chemical equation, and the number of grams or moles of one species in the reaction, find the number of grams or moles of any other species.
3. Given a chemical reaction and a quantity of reactant, calculate the theoretical yield of product, and either actual yield or percent yield.
4. Given a chemical equation and initial quantities of two reactants, (a) identify the limiting reactant; (b) calculate the theoretical yield of a specified product; and (c) calculate the quantity of the excess reactant that remains unreacted.
|States of Matter and Thermochemistry
Read Chapter 10 and 11
1. Describe the motion of gas particles according to the kinetic theory.
2. Interpret gas pressure in terms of kinetic theory.
3. Explain the difference between the physical behavior of solids, liquids, and gases in terms of the relative differences between molecules, the attractive forces between the molecules, and the degree of organization of the particles.
4. Differentiate between evaporation and boiling point of a liquid, using kinetic theory.
5. Interpret the phase diagram of a substance at any given temperature and pressure.
6. Identify and describe the physical processes of freezing and melting, vaporization and condensation, sublimation and deposition.
7. Write thermochemical equations for chemical and physical changes.
8. Use thermochemical equations to calculate heat changes in chemical reactions.
9. Calculate heat changes in physical processes.
10. Using the equation for specific heat, calculate one of the variables (q, heat, m, mass, C, specific heat, change in T) given the values for the other three variables.
11. Sketch the temperature versus time and energy versus time graphs for both endothermic reactions and exothermic reactions.
12. Write thermochemical equations for endothermic and exothermic reactions two ways.
13. Classify as endothermic or exothermic the physical changes of states of matter.
14. Sketch a heating or cooling curve for water. Use values for molar heat of fusion and solidification and molar heat of vaporization and condensation and the values for specific heat of ice, water, and steam to calculate the heat changes that occur as a sample of water is heated or cooled.
|The Behavior of Gases
Read Chapter 12
1. Given a gas pressure in atmospheres, torr, mmHg, inches of mercury, kiloPascals, express that pressure in each of the other units.
2. Convert among temperatures in Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvins.
3. Using the postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory, explain or predict physical phenomena relating to gases.
4. Given three of the parameters in Boyle's Law or Charles' Law, calculate the fourth.
5. Given five of the parameters in the Combined Gas Law, calculate the sixth.
6. Given four of the parameters in the Ideal Gas Law, calculate the fifth.
7. Given a chemical reaction, and the mass of one species, or the volume of a gaseous species at specified conditions, find the mass of any other species, or volume of any other gaseous species at specified conditions.
8. Apply Dalton's Law to calculate total pressure if given partial pressure, or to calculate the pressure of a single gas in a mixture given the total pressure of the partial pressure of the other gases in the mixture.
9. Given any gas, calculate its density at STP.
10. Given the density of unknown gas at specified conditions, calculate the molar mass of the gas.
|Electrons in Atoms
Read Chapter 13
1. Summarize the development of atomic theory. Know the contributions of the following scientists: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr, Schrodinger.
2. Draw and label the following parts of a wave: crest, trough, amplitude, wavelength, wave cycle.
3. Calculate the wavelength, frequency, or energy of light, given one of these variables.
4. Know the values for the speed of light and Planck's constant.
5. Know the parts of the electromagnetic spectrum and be able to place them in order of increasing or decreasing frequency, wavelength, or energy.
6. Explain the origin of the atomic emission spectrum of an element.
7. Know the details of the atomic emission spectrum of hydrogen: the colors of the four line spectra in the visible light region; the energy transitions and the names of the series that correspond to uv, visible, and ir radiation.
8. Explain the Bohr model of the atom and the problems with this model.
9. Explain the quantum mechanical model of the atom.
10. Know the relationship between energy levels (n = 1,2,3...), sublevels (s, p, d, f, g), and orbitals in terms of the quantum mechanical model.
11. Use the Aufbau Principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund's rule to write electron configurations and draw Aufbau orbital diagrams.
12. Use quantum theory to explain the photoelectric effect.
13. Identify the flame test colors of the following elements: sodium, calcium, lithium, barium, copper, strontium.
14. Using the periodic table, write the complete electron configuration for any element.
15. Know the definitions of the following terms: phosphor, chemiluminescence, incandescence, luminescence, phosphorescence, flourescence, diffraction grating, spectroscope, ground state, excited state.
|The Periodic Table
Read Chapter 14
1. Using the periodic table, write the complete and shortened electron configuration for any element.
2. Identify an element as: representative, transition, inner transition; metal, nonmetal, or metalloid.
3. Identify the following groups: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases.
4. Interpret group trends and periodic trends in atomic size, ionic size, ionizaton energy, and electronegativity.
5. Compare the relative size of neutral atoms and cations and neutrals atoms and anions.
6. Name common ions that are isoelectronic to the noble gases.
7. Identify the general valence shell configuration of the representative groups. (Example: Group IA - ns1)
|Bonding Part 1: Internal Bonding
Read Chapters 15 and 16
1. Draw Lewis dot structures for neutral atoms, monatomic ions, molecules, polyatomic ions, and resonance structures.
2. Explain the electron action in metallic bonding and describe the resulting structure.
3. Use the theory of metallic bonding to explain the general properties of metals.
4. Give examples of pure metals and alloys.
5. Use electron dot structures to show the formation of single, double, and triple covalent bonds.
6. Differentiate among single, double, and triple bonds in terms of number of electrons, number of sigma and pi bonds, bond strength, and bond length.
7. List the general properties of molecular compounds.
8. Use VSEPR theory to predict the geometry of molecules and polyatomic ions. Give the name and bond angle of the shape.
9. Explain the electron action in ionic bonding and describe the resulting structure.
10. Given any cation and anion, write the correct formula for the compound they would form.
11. List the general properties of ionic compounds.
12. Using the electronegativities of the elements, classify a bond between any two elements as nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, or ionic. If the bond is polar or ionic, state which end is positive and which is negative.
13. Using the electronegativies of the elements, arrange a series of bonds between pairs of elements according to increasing or decreasing polarity.
14. Given a formula for a compound, predict whether it is likely to have ionic or covalent bonds.