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                                                                                   Nomenclature

                                                                    NOMENCLATURE and FORMULAS

                                                                                          112
                                                                                      Elements

                                                                                      millions of 
                                                                                     Compounds

                      

                                                       ____________                                ______________

                                           made               described                    made                   described
                                             of                        by                               of                             by
                                             

                                    ___________      ____________           ______________      _____________

                                       Cations                      Anions


I. Molecular Compounds

A.    
Molecule 
1)  ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2)  ____________________________________________________________________________________________
3)  ____________________________________________________________________________________________

Examples:  Molecular compounds of like atoms:  ________________________ _________________________

H2             _______________ 

N2            _______________ 

O2            ________________ 

F2             ________________

Cl2            ________________

Br2            ________________

I2              ________________

More examples: Molecular compounds of different atoms: 

CO               _____________                               H2O          _______________ 
SO2              _____________                               NH3          _______________
N2O             _____________                                HBr          _______________ 
C6H12O6      _____________                              ______       Dinitrogen trioxide


B. Three ways to represent Molecular Compounds


1.________________________ - shows how many atoms of each type and 
how they are positioned next to each other

Examples:              

 




**2. ___________________ - show how many atoms of each type**

Examples:          

 

 



3. ___________________ - reduced form of the molecular formula

Examples:       _______________           ________________
                              H2O2                           _______
                              C2H4                                    _______
                              CO2                                      _______


II. Ionic Compounds

A. Ionic Compound
- composed of positive ions (_________) and negative ions (________)
- ____________________________; contain equal number of positive and negative charges
- usually consists of a ________________ and _________________
 
B. Only one way to represent Ionic Compounds

________________________- lowest whole number ratio of ions in an ionic compound

Examples:
sodium chloride                         __________

________________                 MgCl2

________________                      Fe2O3

Calcium bromide                       _________

III. Three Important Laws

A.

B. 

C.

_________________ ___________: number of protons = number of electrons

_________________ ___________: have (or feel like they have) filled outer shell of electrons

To become stable an ATOM will react with another ATOM to:

1.  __________________________ to form a _______________(______________)

2.  __________________________ to form a _______________(______________)

3.  __________________________ to form a ______________________________

 

IV.  How and Why Ions are formed

A. Cations

B. Anions

ex. Na atom - in Group 1 of the periodic table

____  protons 

____ electrons (1 in outer shell)

____ neutrons

Overall charge on a Na atom:

_______________________________________

What will the Na atom do?

A Na atom _________ its outer electron to become a stable ________.

____ protons
____ electrons
____ neutrons

Overall charge on a Na ion:

_________________________

Na ion = Na cation = Na+


ex. Cl atom - in _________ of the periodic table

___ protons

___ electrons (7 are in the outer shell)

Overall charge on a Cl atom:

___________________


What will a Cl atom do?


A Cl atom _________ an electron to become a stable _______.

___ protons
___ electrons

Overall charge on a Cl ion:

_______________________

Cl ion = Cl anion = Cl -


C. Ionic Bonds

1. Ionic bond - ____________________________________________________________________________

2. _______________ _____________ used to represent the formation of an ionic bond

a. Using words

___________   +    __________   ---->    ________________

b. Using chemical formulas and symbols

________________________________________

where s =  ___________
          g =  ___________
 
IV. Naming Monatomic Ions

______________________ _____________ - single atom with a positive or negative charge because it has lost or gained one or more electrons

Examples:

Na                ------->        Na+       +           e- 

_________    yields    ________   and     1 electron 


More Examples:

 

 

 

 

 


A. CATION: ________________________________________________________________________________________________

Note: A variable charge element needs a stock name or classical name


B. ANION:   ________________________________________________________________________________________________


Examples:

Cl                   +        e-      ------>   Cl-

___________ + 1 electron ------> ____________


O                  +     2 e-       ------>       O2-

__________ + 2 electrons ------>   __________


C. POLYATOMIC IONS: GROUPS OF ATOMS THAT ACT AS A UNIT AND CARRY A CHARGE


1.  Some have -ITE endings                      SO3 2-   __________                                   NO2 - _________

2.  Some have -ATE endings                     SO42 -     __________                                 NO3 - _________

3.  Other examples:


NH4 +    ______________

OH -       ______________


Naming and Writing formulas for IONIC COMPOUNDS

I. BINARY Ionic Compounds

A. Constant charge metals

1. To name the ionic compound from the formula:

Name = __________________   +   __________________________

Examples:

NaCl     ___________

AlCl3    ___________

2. To write the formula from the name of the compound:

To write the formula: apply the _________________________________: the net ionic charge of the formula unit is _______

Examples:

name = Barium chloride

a.  Balanced charges method

Ba2+                     Cl-
___ (+2)  + ___ (-1) = 0               

b.  Criss-Cross Method

Ba2+                       Cl-                         


    Ba          Cl


        BaCl2                      Note: No ionic charges in the formula
                                                 Subscripts tell how many of each ion 

Calcium sulfide

Ca2+                S2-

Using balanced charges methods:

_____ (+2) + _____ (-2) = 0

         CaS

Using criss-cross method:

Ca2+             S2-


Ca2S2        must reduce to CaS because ____________ is the              

                  ____________ whole-number ratio of ions in an

                  _______________




Magnesium nitride

Mg2+                    N3-

Using balanced charges methods:

____(+2) + ____ (-3) = 0


Mg3N2

Using balanced charges methods:

Mg2+ N3-

    Mg     N 


B. Variable charge metals

1.  Four common variable charge metals:


Copper                 Cu+             Cu2+
Iron                       Fe2+            Fe3+
Tin                        Sn2+            Sn4+
Lead                     Pb2+                Pb4+

2.  Two ways to name variable charge metals:  ____________ and ____________

    Ion                     Stock name                                                      Classical name

    Cu+                    ______________________                            Cuprous ion

    Cu2+                         Copper (II) ion                                                ____________________

    Fe2+                           Iron (II) ion                                                     ____________________

    Fe3+                           ________________________                                       Ferric ion

    Sn2+                           _____________________                             Stannous ion

    Sn4+                           Tin (IV) ion                                                      _____________________

    Pb2+                          Lead (II) ion                                                     _____________________

    Pb4+                          ______________________                             Plumbic ion

What pattern do you see in naming using the Classical system?

___________________________________
___________________________________


Example:

Name the compound Fe2O3

O ion is a _____________ ion so its charge is ______

Fe ion is a _______________ ion: Is it _____ or _____ ?


Use ___________ to find out:

2 ( _____ ) + 3 (-2) = 0

2 ( 3 ) + 3 ( -2) = 0


So:

Stock name:  _________________

Classical name: _________

Examples:

Name the ionic compound: Fe2S3

Balanced charges: 2 (____) + 3 (-2) = 0
So: _______
Name: ___________________

          ___________________


Name the compound: FeS

Balanced charges: 1 ( ____ ) + 1 ( -2 ) = 0

________________
________________

II. TERNARY Ionic Compounds

__________________ - a compound containing atoms of three different elements, usually containing at least one polyatomic ion

examples of ternary compounds:

Na2CO3      
Mg(OH)2 

A. To name the ternary ionic compound

Name = _________________ + __________________

Na2CO3 

Mg(OH)2

B. To write the formula given the name

Examples:
Sodium nitrate:          

Use balanced charges or criss-cross method:     _________

Sodium nitrite:

Barium nitrate:







Calcium phosphate 

 


III. BINARY Molecular Compounds

__________________ - substance composed of two (or more) nonmetal
elements

A. To name a molecular compound given its formula

1) Use the names of the two elements in the formula
2) Use prefixes before the name of the element to tell the subscript of each element in the formula
3) Give the second element in the name the -ide ending



Prefixes Number
______     1
______     2
______     3
______     4
______     5
______     6
______     7
______     8
______     9
______    10

Some common molecular compounds:

C O 2                                C O                           N 2 O                       C Cl 4

________________                  ___________________             ____________________     ____________________

Compounds of carbon and oxygen:

 

Compounds of sulfur and oxygen:

 

Compounds of nitrogen and oxygen:

 

 

 




Examples: Name the following compounds.

                               Element name          Number of atoms            Prefix
N2O                           Nitrogen                 2                                     di-  
                                   Oxygen                  1                                mono-

_______________

N2O5                      Element name          Number of atoms            Prefix



_________________ (note: the a in penta- becomes the o in oxide) 

                              Element name          Number of atoms             Prefix

OF


_________________


Cl2O8


_________________ (note: a in octa- becomes octo-)




 
B. To write the formula given its name

1)  Use the chemical symbols for the names of the elements
2)  Use the prefixes to determine the subscripts of the elements
3)  Do NOT use ionic charges (these are NOT ions)

Examples:

nitrogen triflouride 

_______

disulfur dichloride

_______

dinitrogen tetroxide

_______


Name the following pairs of compounds:

1) PBr3 and CrBr3



2) N2O and Na2O




3) P2O3 and Fe2O3



III. Naming Common ACIDS

Properties of acids:

1)  compounds that produce ___________________________ in solution

2)  are _______________________

3)  cause certain _________________ to change colors

4)  react with ________________ to produce __________________

5)  react with compounds containing ____________________ to form water and a salt

6)  _______________________


HCl   (aq)        ___________________
H2SO4  (aq)      ___________________
HNO3 (aq)       ___________________
HC2H3O2 (aq) ___________________
H3PO4   (aq)    ___________________
H2CO3  (aq)     ___________________


IV. Naming HYDRATES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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