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Introduction to Chemistry;  Matter and Change

Introduction to Chemistry

I. What is Science?
A.  Science is a way of learning, understanding, and knowing about the universe.                   

It: 

  • refers to a ________________________ of acquiring knowledge
  • uses ______________________ and _______________________ to describe  and explain natural phenomenon                                        
  • refers to the organized body of knowledge people have gained using that system.

 

B.  Uses the Scientific Method

     1.    Ask  ________________________________                                                      

    

     2.    _____________________________ previous information                                                 

    

     3.    Make_______________________ to collect ______________

              a.  Observations made using: _____________ or ______________ 

      

 

 

 

 

 

               b.  Data can be collected in two forms:  ____________________________:  __________________
                                                                                               

                                                                        ____________________________:  __________________
               c.  Record the data in a systematic way

     4.   Create a _____________________________: a tentative explanation of a small set of observations

    

     5.   Test the hypothesis by doing experiments                                       

    

     6.   A __________________________  ___________   summarizes patterns that are  observed in the data

    

     7.   If a hypothesis successfully passes many tests, it becomes known as a ______________________

    

     8.   If a theory is repeatedly confirmed by many different experiments, it  may become a    

           __________________________   _______________________ theory. 

 

C.  Two types of scientists:

1.   ___________________________________ 

 

2.  ____________________________________ 

 

D. Branches of Science

1.  Natural Science :  studies the  ____________________________   ___________________ world
Name                                       What It Studies                                                 Examples
                                                
Biology                                    _____________________                               _____________________                          ____________________         nonliving things                                     _____________________
Physical science                       nonliving things                                           Physics
Earth science                            living things                                                 Botany

 

2.  Social Science
Name                                       What It Studies                                                 Examples
Social sciences                        human behavior and societies                       Psychology;   Sociology

 

 

3. Formal Science

Name                                     What It Studies                                                        Examples

 Formal sciences                      numbers and symbol systems                       mathematics; statistics; logic

 

II. What is Chemistry?

A. _______________________ is the study of:

1.  the _________________________ of matter and its ___________________

2.  the _________________________ that matter undergoes

3.  the _________________________ associated with those changes

         ________________________: anything that has mass and occupies space (has volume)
         ________________________: a measure of the amount of matter present;  measured using a balance

 

B. Branches of Chemistry

Name                                                               What it Studies                                     
__________________________                           Chemical elements and their compounds except
                                                                               most ______________________ ____________________
__________________________                           Compounds that contain ______________________ atoms 

__________________________                           Heat exchange accompanying chemical and physical                                                                                     processes, such as ____________________,

                                                                         ______________________ and ______________________
                                                                     

Matter and Change

Two principal ways of classifying matter:
1) ____________________________: ___________________, ____________________, or _____________
2) ____________________________: ___________________, __________________, or
_______________

I.
Classification of Matter: Physical States 

PHYSICAL STATE            SHAPE                         VOLUME                             ACTION OF PARTICLES 

Solid 

Liquid 

Gas 

II. Classification of Matter: Composition

To classify as an element, compound, or mixture:

All matter can be classified into ______ categories:

               _________________________                    ___________________________
             __________________________                   ___________________________














_________________________             _________________________             ________________________

A.  HETEROGENEOUS

1. Coarse Mixtures

a. Properties

- ______________________________________________________________

- ______________________________________________________________

- ______________________________________________________________

- ______________________________________________________________

- ______________________________________________________________


b. Methods of Separation

1) _________________________
- used to separate a heterogenous mixture of a solid and a liquid

- filtrate - the liquid that passes through the filter paper
- residue - the solid collected on the filter paper

2) _________________________
- used to separate a heterogenous mixture of a solid and a liquid
- procedure involves pouring off the liquid

3) ________________________
- used to separate solid from liquids or liquids from liquids according to boiling points
 
4) _________________________
- used to separate two immiscible liquids

5) _________________________
- used to separate solid particles from other solids, liquids, or
gases

2. Suspensions or Colloidal Dispersions

a. Properties
- _____________________________________________________________

- _____________________________________________________________

- _____________________________________________________________

- ______________________________________________________________

- colloids can form when each of the three state of matter - solid, liquid, and gases - disperse in each of the others except no gas forms a colloidal dispersion in any other gas 

Ex. ___________ (liquid - liquid); _________, _____________ (liquid - gas); __________, ___________, __________________ (solid - liquid); __________________ (gas - liquid); _______________ (solid - gas)

* Suspensions scatter light
Red is scattered the least: 


                                               R O Y G B I V                                 R


Explains why:
Stop signs and stop lights are red to be visible in fog
Sun sets are red
____________________ - the scattering of light by particles in a colloid or suspension, which causes a beam of light to become visible



                                                                                         Colloids in air




                                              At sunset: more atmosphere
                                                              more colloids
                                                              more blue light scattered

b. Means of Separation

1) __________________________
- have very tiny openings where colloids get caught
ex. kidney: contains membranes that can separate colloid - sized cells from smaller dissolved particles

2) ___________________________
- spins so fast that colloids are separated
ex. use to separate blood cells

3) ___________________________
- add something to the suspension 
ex. milk = fat in water; add acid (vinegar or lemon) and the fat particles coagulate and make cheese

4) ___________________________
    ___________________________ - separation techniques based on differences in solubility

B. HOMOGENEOUS

1. Solutions

a. Properties

- ______________________: a sample from any portion will have the same composition as any other portion
- _______________________ - substance being dissolved
- _______________________- substance doing the dissolving
- _________________________________________
- _________________________________________
- _________________________________________
- _________________________________________

ex. salt in water, iodine in alcohol (solid solute in liquid solvent)
alloys: brass (Cu + Zn), steel (Fe + Cr + C) (solid solute in solid solvent)
soda, seltzer water (gas solute CO2 in liquid solvent)
air (gas solutes O2, CO2, He, Ne, Ar in gas solvent N2)

b. Methods of Separation

1) _________________________ - used to separate solid solute from a liquid solvent

2) _________________________ - used to separate two miscible liquids

3) _________________________ - used to move a solute from one solvent to another in order to more easily    

    recover it

2. Pure Substances

a. Compounds
1) Properties
- _________________________________

- _________________________________

- ______________________________________ (Law of Definite Proportions*)

- ______________________________________ 

Examples:

sodium chloride             __________________
sucrose (table sugar)     __________________
water                            __________________
hydrogen peroxide         __________________

* __________________________ - in any sample of a chemical compound, the 
elements are always combined in the same proportion by mass

2) Methods of Separation

Compounds can be decomposed into individual elements by
- ___________________________

- ___________________________

- __________________________________________________

b. Elements

1) Properties
- _____________________________

- _____ different elements - _____ naturally occurring, _____ manmade

2) Methods of Separation
- _______________________________________________________
  _______________________________________________________

- _______________________________________________________



Elements and an Introduction to the Periodic Table


Element - ______________________________
- represented by ____________________ (often consists of 2 letters, sometimes one)
                 if two letters, first is capital, second is lower case to represent an element

Ex.  C  =  _________________________

       S  =  _________________________

       Na = _________________________

       Co = _________________________

       CO = _________________________

- abundance

Earth                                   Universe                                  Body 
_______                             _______                                 ________

_______                             _______                                 ________

_______                                                                            ________

_______                                                                            ________

Introduction to the Periodic Table

A. _________________: found on the periodic table to the ________ of   the     _________ except near __________________

Examples: __________________

Properties: 
_________________     (One is so soft it is a liquid at room temperature: ________ )

_________________     can be pounded into thin sheets

_________________     can be drawn into thin wires (nails)

_________________

_________________

_________________________________________

_________________________________________

 

 

B._____________ : found near ______________ on the periodic table

Examples: ____________________

Properties:
Same as _________________ except they are _____________ 

Only ______________ and________________ when 

C. ____________________: found on the periodic table to the ___________ of the ___________________

    Examples:  ______________,_________________,________________


Properties:
___________________: (Br is liquid) 

___________________

_________________________


D. ___________________: found on the periodic table______________ the _______________

Examples: ________________________

Properties: in between metals and nonmetals

E. ___________________: found in the____________________________________ of the periodic table

Examples: _________________

Properties:
_______________________

_______________________


III.  Classification of Matter: Properties

A.  Physical Properties

1.    ______________________________________

 

2.    ______________________________________

 

3.    ______________________________________

 

4.    ______________________________________

 

5.    ______________________________________

 

6.    ______________________________________

 

7.    ______________________________________

 

8.    ______________________________________

 

9.    ______________________________________

 

10.  ______________________________________

 

B.  Chemical Properties

Ability to :  1.    ________________________

                   

                  2.   ________________________

                   

                   3. ________________________

                   

                  4.   ________________________

                   

                   5. ________________________

 

IV.  Changes in Matter

 

A.  Physical Changes

 

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

 

B.  Chemical Changes

 

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

 

HOMEPAGE